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Apache Guide: Setting Up Virtual Hosts
Jul 17, 2000, 03 :19 UTC (111 Talkback[s]) (55009 reads) (Other stories by Rich Bowen)


Virtual hosts let you run more than one Web site on the same server. In this article, I'll show you how to set up your server to run virtual hosts.

What's a Virtual Host?

As suggested in the paragraph above, virtual hosts are Web sites with different names that all run on the same server hardware. The idea is that Apache knows which site you are trying to get, even though they are all on the same server, and gives you content from the right one.

It's this trick that lets me run several Web sites on my home machine, from a variety of different domain names, and several names within one domain, so that my one little machine behind my DSL link looks like a room full of servers. Neat trick.

Reasons for Using Virtual Hosts

Well, you probably already have some ideas in mind. But here's how I generally use virtual hosts. I work for a Web-design company, and when we're developing a customer site, we set up a virtual host specially for that company. These are usually name-based, since these are faster to set up (one step shorter), and are almost always internal only. That is, the names are put into our internal DNS, so that internal hosts can see the Web sites, but external browsers see only the boring, featureless external page on our development server.

The advantages to doing this are numerous. It lets us set the directory structure on the site the same way that it will be on the real server when we are done with development. It lets us keep fines completely separate from one "server" and another, so that there is no confusion as to what is on which site. And, from the developers' perspective, it lets them set up completely different sites in DreamWeaver, rather than just different subdirectories on the same site.

And, of course, you don't have to have a new server for each site, no matter how many customer projects you're working on at one time. Which is the biggest reason for using virtual hosts in any scenario.

Name-based vs IP-based Virtual Hosting

Virtual hosts can be specified one of two ways. These are configuration differences on the server, and are not visible to the client--that is, there is no way that the user can tell what sort of virtual host they are using. Or even that they are using a virtual host, for that matter.

The two types are IP-based virtual hosting and name-based virtual hosting. In a nutshell, the difference is that IP-based virtual hosts have a different IP address for each virtual host, while name-based virtual hosts have the same IP address, but use different names for each one. There are reasons for each. There's not much difference in implementation.

IP-based Virtual Hosting

In IP-based virtual hosting, you are running more than one web site on the same server machine, but each web site has its own IP address. In order to do this, you have to first tell your operating system about the multiple IP addresses. Most modern operating systems let you give your machine as many IP addresses as you want. The specific details of how you give your machine multiple IP addresses varies from OS to OS, and I'm not going to go into that right now. If you don't know how to accomplish this on your OS, you might want to consult your local guru. It's typically not very difficult. Or, you may just want to skip down to the section on name-based virtual hosts.

On older operating systems, it was sometimes even necessary to have one NIC (network interface card) per IP address, but that is almost never the case any more.

Once you have given your machine multiple IP addresses, you will need to put each IP in your DNS, so that it will resolve to the names that you want to give those addresses. Again, I'm not going to go into the details of setting up DNS records. You should contact the person that is responsible for your DNS server to get these records put in place.

Now, the part that directly relates to Apache. Assuming that you have all the IP addresses on your machine, and each IP address has a DNS record for it, you'll put the following information in your Apache httpd.conf configuration file.

For this discussion, I'll assume that you have 3 IP addresses, and that you've given them the names,, and You can, however, given them names from entirely different domains, such as and

The addition to your httpd.conf file will look like:

        DocumentRoot /usr/local/apache/name1_www
        ErrorLog /usr/local/apache/logs/name1_logs/error_log
        TransferLog /usr/local/apache/logs/name1_logs/access_log
        DocumentRoot /usr/local/apache/name2_www
        ServerAlias name2
        DocumentRoot /usr/local/apache/name3_www
        ScriptAlias /use/local/apache/name3_cgi

Notice that you don't need to configure everything for each virtual host. Whatever you don't specify, it will inherit from the main server configuration. For example, you'll notice that on the second virtual host, I did not specify a location for the server logs. This virtual host will log to the main server log files.

Notice also that in the third section, I specify a CGI directory. All the other sections will default to using the cgi directory specified in the main server configuration, when a URL is accessed containing /cgi-bin/, because it has not been specified in the virtual host configuration section.

Almost any configuration directive is valid inside a VirtualHost section. In the server documentation, you'll notice that each directive says where it is valid, and it should be pretty clear whether or not you can put a particular directive in one of these sections.

Remember to test your new configuration files before restarting your server:

       /usr/local/apache/bin/apachectl configtest

Another handy tip, which also applies to name-based virtual hosts, is to use the ServerAlias directive. When accessing a server internally, on your LAN, you'll often want to use the server's short name, eg "name2", rather than the full name "" Using the ServerAlias ensures that you don't get an unexpected page when trying to use that short name. Apache has no way to know that "name2" and "" are actually the same Web site.

Once you restart your server to reload the configuration file, Apache will figure out, based on the URL that you typed in, which web site you are trying to access, and will serve you the right page based on that information. Even though they are all on the same physical machine. Pretty cool, huh?

Name-Based Virtual Hosts

Of course, sometimes, you don't have the luxury of giving your machine multiple IP addresses. IP addresses are in shorter and shorter supply, and frequently, such as if you have an DSL connection as I do, you only have one. In this case, name-based virtual hosting is for you.

You don't have to give your machine multiple IP addresses, but you will still have to contact the person that is responsible for your DNS server, and have them put more than one DNS record in for your machine. These extra records are called C-records, or CNames. (The main record pointing at a machine is called the AName, or A-record.) You can have as many CNames as you like pointing to a particular machine.

Once you have your DNS configured to send traffic to you for all these names, you'll need to do the following in your server configuration file:

        DocumentRoot /usr/local/apache/name1docs
        ServerAlias name1
        DocumentRoot /usr/local/apache/name2docs
        ServerAlias name2
        DocumentRoot /usr/local/apache/name3docs
        ServerAlias name3

Once again, as in the IP-based virtual hosts, you can put any directive you want in these sections. I've kept them all pretty simple.

There are several things to note here.

First, you must specify, with the NameVirtualHost directive, what IP address should be responding to virtual host requests. You can use IP-based and name-based virtual hosting in conjunction - that is, you can do both on the same server at the same time. So you must specify which addresses you're using for this. I'll frequently set up virtual hosts on the internal and external interface of a server (intranet servers and internet servers, that is) and so you must specify both addresses:


Furthermore, you can run virtual hosts on different ports, as well as different addresses, if you really want to complicate things:


Just make sure that all the names make it into DNS, or you might end up serving a page that you were not intending to.

The magic for the virtual host stuff is that the browser tells the server what server it is requesting content from. There are still some older browsers in use that don't do this correctly, and so they might get content from the "default" server on your machine. This is almost never a real consideration, since any browser produced in the last five years (perhaps even before that--I tend to lose track of time these days) has this ability. There are work-arounds in Apache so that it will work for even these browsers, but I'll let you research that on your own, if you really want to. Start at and go from there.

Running Multiple Daemons

There's actually a third alternative. You can run completely separate server daemons on your server machine and have each one serving a separate Web site. The downside of this is that each one must run on a different port, since you can't have multiple services listening on the same port at the same time.

You can get a server to run with a particular configuration file with the -f command-line option:

        /usr/local/apache/bin/apache -f /usr/local/apache/conf/name2_httpd.conf

This lets you start as many server daemons as your machine can stand, each one running a different server configuration. Make sure, of course, that each configuration file has a Port directive pointing at a different port, or every one after the first one will fail to start, giving you an error message like:

       Could not bind to port 80: Port already in use. 


Virtual hosts let you run multiple Web sites on the same physical server machine. The advantages of this are numerous, and can be summed up for your boss as "we don't have to buy another machine for the 18 other Web sites you want to run."

Future columns

Please let me know if there are other topics that you'd like for me to talk about in future columns. You can send your suggestions to me at And please let me know what you think of my columns, at that same address. Many thanks for reading down this far!

  Current Newswire:
Apache 1.3.23 released

wdvl: Build Your Own Database Driven Website Using PHP and MySQL: Part 4

Business 2.0: Find High Tech in the Bargain Basement

Another mod_xslt added to the Apache Module Registry database

Netcraft Web Server Survey for December is available

O'Reilly: Apache Web-Serving with Mac OS X: Part 1

WDVL: Perl for Web Site Management: Part 3

Retro web application framework V1.1.0 release

Leveraging open standards such as Java, JSP, XML,J2EE, Expresso and Struts.

Netcraft Web Server Survey for November is available

 Talkback(s) Name  Date
Great article Rich, covers pretty much everything :) ...   Great Article Rich...   
  Jul 17, 2000, 10:11:42
But how does Name based VH affect a domain that needs an MX record? One would ha ...   MX records?   
  Jul 17, 2000, 16:36:15
dear ricj ,could you write an article on apache server configuration.thanksprabh ...   informative article   
  Jul 17, 2000, 21:09:47
This is a good article, but with respect to the differences between Name-based v ...   Differences between Name-based vs IP-based Virtual Hosting   
  Jul 17, 2000, 23:58:19
> could you write an article on apache server configuration.All of my articles s ...   Re: informative article   
  Jul 18, 2000, 11:03:19
> Isn&#39;t it true that under certain circumstances, that Name-based virtual ho ...   Re: Differences between Name-based vs IP-based Virtual Hosting   
  Jul 18, 2000, 11:09:00
This was a great article. For those of us that have to run servers from DHCP co ...   DHCP connections   
  Jul 18, 2000, 11:51:25
Nice work, Rich! Keep them coming ...Alex ...   Thanks Rich   
  Jul 18, 2000, 20:19:31
> But how does Name based VH affect a domain that needs an MX record? One would ...   Re: MX records?   
  Jul 18, 2000, 20:27:24
Using the BindAddress or Listen directive to specify differentIP-Address for eac ...   multiple daemons listening on port 80   
  Jul 19, 2000, 10:39:45
Thanks for the article! Do you know where we might find some "large" config exam ...   Example Virtual Host Configs?   
  Jul 20, 2000, 13:44:23
Is there some way you can make ssl work withn name based virutal hosts ? I know ...   ssl and virutal hosting   
  Jul 21, 2000, 17:57:14
Nice stuff. ...   Apache virtual Hosting.   
  Jul 22, 2000, 10:33:55
We have one machine with a SSL that is namebased and IP&#39;s pooled for the ssl ...   Re: ssl and virutal hosting   
  Jul 22, 2000, 17:32:52
Yes.BindAddress # or a valid fqdn.I&#39;ve run 100 or more seperate ...   Re: multiple daemons listening on port 80   
  Jul 23, 2000, 02:40:40
> Using the BindAddress or Listen directive to specify differentIP-Address for e ...   Re: multiple daemons listening on port 80   
  Jul 23, 2000, 18:59:58
> This was a great article. For those of us that have to run servers from DHCP ...   Re: DHCP connections   
  Jul 23, 2000, 19:01:09
Very illuminating. I&#39;m very interested in knowing more about how to set up a ...   Intranet/Internet   
  Jul 23, 2000, 19:37:32
I need detailed examples on how to setup Apache and create 3 virtual hosts.I hav ...   Detailed examples and how to's for Virtual Host Configs   
  Jul 24, 2000, 00:04:57
I&#39;m running Apple OS X server with BSD 4.4 and Apache 1.3.9. I&#39;m trying ...   Vitual Hosting problems   
  Jul 25, 2000, 19:52:34
Is there any tools that can manage the virtual hosts simpler ? maybe web-based c ...   Virtual Hosting Tools   
  Jul 26, 2000, 08:17:25
Invalid command &#39;ScriptAlias&#39;, perhaps mis-spelled or defined by a modul ...   ScriptAlias : Sorry - the output is like this   
  Jul 26, 2000, 08:34:21
> > This was a great article. For those of us that have to run servers from DHC ...   Re: Re: DHCP connections   
  Jul 27, 2000, 23:04:33
To do virtual hosts behind a firewall, you have to set NameVirtualHost to theweb ...   Virtual hosts behind a firewall   
  Aug 1, 2000, 13:30:48
I can&#39;t configure apache server.Would some one help mekamal ...   how do i configure apache   
  Aug 6, 2000, 11:26:28
> We have one machine with a SSL that is namebased and IP&#39;s pooled for the s ...   Re: Re: ssl and virutal hosting   
  Aug 14, 2000, 08:29:04
I serching a web based virtual hoting tool if possible please help me and mail m ...   Re: Virtual Hosting Tools   
  Sep 1, 2000, 16:27:09
When I setup IP-based domain, it becames visible after 24 hours (or more).. Is t ...   Time for IP to became visible   
  Sep 2, 2000, 15:38:05
Anyone know how to deny http access when using IP but allow when using domain na ...   deny http from IP but not domain name   
  Sep 21, 2000, 15:37:00
Thank you!I was getting so frustrated wondering why it wouldn&#39;t work. You&# ...   Re: Virtual hosts behind a firewall   
  Oct 5, 2000, 15:00:07
NOPE .... TCP/IP understands octs ... the name part is just a boner through name ...   Re: deny http from IP but not domain name   
  Oct 5, 2000, 20:35:32
I&#39;ve had name-based virtual hosting working beautifully for several virtual ...   Max. name-based virtual host name?   
  Oct 25, 2000, 07:08:01
I don&#39;t know it&#39;s working or not. Just go through it. ...   Setting up Virtual Hosts   
  Nov 6, 2000, 08:36:34
Who can tell me the step to setting up virtual hosts on apache server ...   How to setting up virtual hosts   
  Nov 10, 2000, 05:13:15
if it can do all these powerful things, like hosting more than one website in a ...   This Apache is very powerful...   
  Nov 10, 2000, 11:13:25
You can use the web-based version of linuxconf.P.S. under linux only! ...   Re: Virtual Hosting Tools   
  Nov 13, 2000, 13:33:21
> Is there any tools that can manage the virtual hosts simpler ? maybe web-based ...   Re: Virtual Hosting Tools   
  Nov 24, 2000, 10:14:10
> Is there any tools that can manage the virtual hosts simpler ? maybe web-based ...   Re: Virtual Hosting Tools   
  Nov 24, 2000, 16:26:24
I have name based virtual hosts working but I can&#39;t get CGI scripts to execu ...   CGI / Virtual Hosts   
  Nov 24, 2000, 16:29:55
Yep, just set the refresh time to a shorter period (like 1 hour or less). ...   Re: Time for IP to became visible   
  Nov 24, 2000, 16:53:36
If they are name base you need the NameVirtualHost directive: NameVitualHost 192 ...   Re: Detailed examples and how to's for Virtual Host Configs   
  Nov 27, 2000, 04:18:35
I&#39;d like to know how can I set a VirtualHost directive that resolves my prob ...   2 DNSs and just one server   
  Dec 1, 2000, 17:30:52
Massive Virtual Host didn&#39;t working on 1.3.14, but the same config work on 1 ...   Mass Vhost on 1.3.14 from 1.3.12   
  Dec 3, 2000, 16:10:46
Hello..I am Harish,I am tring to configure virtual hosting using apache after co ...   Apache Server   
  Jan 6, 2001, 10:25:34
Hi ,Anyone ever successfully ran ip based hosting on NT lately (v 1.3.13)I don&# ...   ip based vhosting on NT   
  Jan 9, 2001, 11:31:38
Question. I&#39;ve defined several VirtualHosts in my http.conf file. Now it&#39 ...   .htaccess within virtualhost container   
  Jan 17, 2001, 15:20:59
Is there a "ServerName *" option to make any website under example.c ...   ServerName * ?!   
  Jan 18, 2001, 00:16:18
You gotta allow access to the .htaccess file, lets say it&#39;sin a subdirecory ...   Re: .htaccess within virtualhost container   
  Feb 3, 2001, 18:12:05
Dear Apache forum,I am using apache 1.3.Despite spending hours, I couldn&#39;t f ...   2 IP addresses for name-based ?   
  Feb 16, 2001, 08:10:58
Hallo,if you get some information, please send me this.thank you very muchSTepha ...   tool vhosts   
  Feb 20, 2001, 13:57:38
Is there anyway to distinguish what system users can access thier user account v ...   Specifying users with virtual hosts   
  Feb 21, 2001, 18:57:34
I&#39;m trying to work with Apache for the first time. I&#39;m currently running ...   setting it all up   
  Mar 8, 2001, 11:25:50
I am currently trying to tranfer our internal web server based on solaris to ano ...   Host Name VirtualHosts   
  Mar 15, 2001, 18:07:50
I am having the same problem, apache is ignoring my virtual host directives and ...   Re: Detailed examples and how to's for Virtual Host Configs   
  Mar 25, 2001, 00:45:01
I have set up the basics for a virtual host however I saw here a mention of usin ...   Virtual Host & Cname   
  Mar 29, 2001, 22:59:47
Okay don&#39;t know if this applies to most but I had everything setup correctly ...   Re: Re: Detailed examples and how to's for Virtual Host Configs   
  Apr 1, 2001, 09:35:24
I need to set up 2 web sites (maybe more as time goes on...) on a laptop for dem ...   VirtualHosts on LocalHost   
  Apr 8, 2001, 07:03:47
Hello,Basically, I know how to setting up virtual host on apache and modifying t ...   mod_vhost_alias   
  Apr 9, 2001, 09:54:13
THANKS!You have no idea what I&#39;d been going through prior to reading your po ...   Re: Virtual hosts behind a firewall   
  Apr 11, 2001, 09:30:48
I have my httpd.conf file set up for virtual hosts. I currently have a project t ...   Trouble setting up Virtual-Hosts   
  Apr 12, 2001, 03:51:23
Im finding all this very intersting, Ive just setup up a Linux box and im now st ...   multiple name based vhost   
  Apr 20, 2001, 07:40:26
how to set up the virtual host in this = /home/user1www ...   virtual host   
  Apr 21, 2001, 15:01:57
I have 3 ip&#39;s. one is for, one is for www.industryque ...   3 ip's 6 websites.   
  Apr 26, 2001, 18:25:01
Do you know of any limits to the amount of name-based hosts? I would like to set ...   namd-based question   
  May 6, 2001, 22:21:53
Hello,I wanted to know - Is it possible for me to prepare separate log files or ...   Apache Vir. Host Log File   
  May 11, 2001, 11:39:21
Dear Sir,I have studied your tutorial and found very much helpfull for beginers. ...   Virtual Hosting   
  May 12, 2001, 12:59:04
A couple of questions please... where do i point the DocumentRoot, ServerPath, S ...   Virtual Host with Windows ME?   
  May 14, 2001, 03:38:52
I try to do an image server in python. My basic server run when I use two X-term ...   run my own server ( on apache)   
  May 17, 2001, 14:40:40
I have the same problem ...   Re: Trouble setting up Virtual-Hosts   
  May 23, 2001, 23:54:08
I&#39;m desperately trying to use the IBM HTTP WEB Configuration tool to configu ...   Using the Web Configuration Tool   
  May 24, 2001, 18:37:30
i am making a dynamic apache configuration server in c/c++ for linux, in which t ...   VirtualHosts and Anonymous access   
  May 26, 2001, 11:56:10
GoodDay!!!!I am having problems on my cgi-bin directory whenever i create a virt ...   cgi-bin inquiry   
  Jun 4, 2001, 05:42:32
Hello,i already assing IP against each domain, for hosting when i used virtual h ...   HTTP / Forbidden   
  Jun 8, 2001, 10:43:08
After I did set up virtual hosts (name based) I get the "ForbiddenYou don&#39;t ...   Problems after setting up virtual hosts   
  Jun 14, 2001, 07:24:07
Hi,If you find the Apache VirtualHost feature bewildering, you can&#39;t afford ...   VirtualHosts - Detailed Examples   
  Jun 25, 2001, 00:47:11
i can&#39;t get apache to work in my server. i&#39;m using window/me and i can&# ...   I can't run apache   
  Jun 26, 2001, 07:25:28
all hits to my secondary vhost domain get served the primary site data.Apache 1. ...   namebased vhosts   
  Jul 27, 2001, 02:47:55
I have the same prob!!! ...   Re: .htaccess within virtualhost container   
  Aug 7, 2001, 18:19:10
I have a name-based virtual apache server running and i get an error message as ...   virtualhosts mixing * ports and non-* ports   
  Aug 17, 2001, 15:34:37
I have a virtual host working, but i have a little problem, the port number appe ...   Using port in Virtual hosting   
  Aug 20, 2001, 16:47:03
How do I limit connections to the server? I think it is MaxClients. If that is ...   Limit Connections and display error message   
  Aug 23, 2001, 18:17:23
Currently, I just have one website on the server, and it of course uses the main ...   Name-based vhost and main server   
  Aug 24, 2001, 23:00:24
I had installed apache on my machine and done all the settings What I want to do ...   how to use a domain name   
  Aug 28, 2001, 04:33:32
How can I redirect connection attempts on port 80 to Tomcat listening at its pr ...   Redirection connection on 80 port to port 8080   
  Sep 4, 2001, 08:18:44
I have 2 Linux servers setup with Apache. One is a test machine with 1 site run ...   SSI and Virtual Hosts   
  Sep 17, 2001, 14:30:54
I have the same problem as below! anyone find a solution yet??> all hits to my ...   Re: namebased vhosts   
  Sep 20, 2001, 15:28:46
Add the &#96;UserDir disabled&#96; directive to domain2&#39;s section. ...   Re: Specifying users with virtual hosts   
  Sep 22, 2001, 04:53:01
Can someone post PLEASE a full working httpd.conf file for us.I can clean for my ...   Name base virtual host   
  Sep 24, 2001, 21:06:02
You need a ScriptAlias directive within each VirtualHost definition that wants a ...   re:cgi-bin inquiry   
  Sep 25, 2001, 22:34:22
I am the subscriber of an ADSL service that provides user with dynamic IPs. And ...   Using vhosts with dynamic IP addresses   
  Oct 9, 2001, 00:54:56
The best tool which i have found to configure apache is webminwww.webmin.comthis ...   Re: Re: Virtual Hosting Tools   
  Oct 9, 2001, 04:50:48
I have one IP, can I make a DNS Server??a real dns server for hosting websites, ...   I have one IP, can I make a DNS Server??   
  Oct 9, 2001, 05:34:33
I am having this same problem with SSI and Virtual Hosts. I can get it to work ...   Re: SSI and Virtual Hosts   
  Oct 9, 2001, 17:58:46
ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /home/ ...   Re: cgi-bin inquiry   
  Oct 14, 2001, 17:33:12
I have tried to setup the vhosts as per the documentation. however, when I run t ...   vHost problems   
  Oct 18, 2001, 02:04:55
Hi there everyone, I am runing apache in my Windows XP System and I was ...   Making the HTML Main Site in Apache   
  Oct 24, 2001, 08:31:17
i want to point to a specific port on the same ip as my web serv ...   Virtual Hosts pointing to urls   
  Oct 30, 2001, 09:09:07
I&#39;ve configured my apache box (1.3.22 under win32) to use mod_vhost_alias as ...   mod_vhost_alias and alias   
  Nov 10, 2001, 12:55:29
My apache configuration looks like this: VirtualDocumentRoot /service/%3 ...   Dynamic Virtual Hosts + 1 Absolute Virtual Hosts...   
  Nov 12, 2001, 18:58:05
I have succesfully integraded These three . However when i access the index.jsp ...   Apache + Tomcat + MOd_jk   
  Nov 19, 2001, 03:22:41
How do u do it in Windows 98Name-Based Virtual Hosts ServerName www.nv-technolog ...   How do u do it from windows   
  Nov 19, 2001, 12:18:55
I had virtual hosts running on an earlier version of Apache for Windows (1.3.19, ...   Virtual Host Issues   
  Nov 28, 2001, 05:46:42
On a typical Windows install, Apache is set up as follows:[drive]:\Program Files ...   Re: vHost problems   
  Nov 28, 2001, 15:48:30
Could you please explain it a little bit, Dave?I am trying to do something simil ...   Re: Re: ssl and virutal hosting   
  Nov 30, 2001, 22:40:22
How can i get the virtual host workI have been trying with webmin but is get wor ...   Re: Re: Virtual Hosting Tools   
  Dec 1, 2001, 02:55:35
Hello Rich,I just developed a ISAPI web extention program, it can work on Win200 ...   Where should I place a ISAPI extention on my Apache   
  Dec 1, 2001, 16:44:23
Hello everyone,The situation in which I am is as follows:1. I have a one server ...   Virtual Hosts + Proxy   
  Dec 7, 2001, 22:42:58
Hi Carl,I&#39;ve been trying to get virtual hosts to work, could you please post ...   Re: CGI / Virtual Hosts   
  Dec 15, 2001, 11:27:19
I have set up Apache server on one machine using IP-based address. Nut if i try ...   Apache is configured but cannot be accessed   
  Dec 24, 2001, 05:32:33
Rich,This is an excellent article. Thanks for writing it in &#39;English&#39; a ...   Excellent Article   
  Jan 7, 2002, 18:46:31
hi, does anybody have a sample configuration onhow to setup a apache reverse pro ...   reverse proxy server   
  Jan 8, 2002, 03:04:13
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